Ricardo Bofill, a Spanish architect behind a number of the world’s most startling buildings, died on Friday at a hospital in Barcelona. He was 82.
The trigger was Covid-19, his son Pablo stated.
Amongst Mr. Bofill’s greatest recognized works had been public housing initiatives, most of them inbuilt France within the Nineteen Eighties, with vastly overscale classical parts, which had been each derided as kitsch and hailed by critics because the long-awaited center floor between historicism and modernity.
He started his profession with a sequence of smaller initiatives in Spain that adopted geometric guidelines to generally mind-boggling extremes. La Muralla Roja, designed in 1968 and accomplished in 1973, within the coastal metropolis of Calpe, reimagined the North African casbah as a shiny pink assemblage of partitions and stairways as if organized by M.C. Escher.
One other housing challenge from the identical interval, Walden 7, outdoors Barcelona, consists of twenty-two towers grouped round 5 courtyards, their outer facades painted an earthy ocher and their courtyard facades a darkish aqua.
However it was extra than simply aesthetic exploration that motivated Mr. Bofill. His purpose, his son Pablo stated in an interview, was “to show that at a modest value you may construct social housing the place each flooring is completely different, the place individuals don’t need to stroll down infinite corridors, and the place completely different populations might be a part of one group.”
By the Nineteen Eighties, Mr. Bofill had begun utilizing historic particulars as floor ornament — a trademark of the model that got here to be often called postmodernism. And for a lot of that decade, it served him properly.
In 1985, the Museum of Trendy Artwork in New York mounted a show of his work, together with coloration images of a variety of housing initiatives in and round Paris. The primary one constructed, Les Arcades du Lac, was a gargantuan model of a Seventeenth-century French backyard, with condo buildings standing in for hedges.
One other, often called Les Espaces d’Abraxas, reinvented and repurposed classical parts in unsettling, otherworldly mixtures; it options huge columns made not of stone however of reflective glass. That challenge was typically described as a sort of “Versailles for the individuals.” However its jarring juxtapositions made it appear dystopian — and it served as the proper backdrop for Terry Gilliam’s 1985 film, “Brazil,” and the final of the “Starvation Video games” films.
Paul Goldberger, the structure critic of The New York Occasions on the time, wrote in 1985 that it was Mr. Bofill’s reward “to have the ability to unite the French intuition towards monumentality, which has lain dormant because the days when the Beaux-Arts dominated French structure, with the nation’s extra present leanings towards populism.”
Mr. Goldberger visited 4 Bofill initiatives that he referred to as “collectively, essentially the most vital physique of architectural work constructed in Paris in a technology.” He was significantly serious about The Scales of the Baroque, a 300-unit growth within the blighted 14th arrondissement, classically detailed and organized round tightly composed public areas. He described it as necessary for Paris because the Pompidou Center.
However the challenge’s affect proved restricted. Postmodernism was short-lived, and Mr. Bofill returned to doing extra conventionally trendy work.
“When Put up-Modernism grew to become accepted and well-liked in the US and worldwide, it additionally grew to become a mode,” Mr. Bofill advised Vladimir Belogolovsky in a 2016 interview for the web site ArchDaily. “And with time it grew to become ironic and even vulgar. I used to be now not .”
Ricardo Bofill Levi was born right into a distinguished Catalan household in Barcelona on Dec. 5, 1939, months after the tip of the Spanish Civil Conflict. His father, Emilio Bofill, was an architect and developer. His mom, Maria Levi, was a Venetian who grew to become an arts patron in Barcelona.
Ricardo developed an curiosity in structure when his father took him to go to job websites. However when he thought of a profession in structure, he felt directly impressed and inhibited. Rising up beneath the dictator Francisco Franco, he defined in an essay in 1989, “you dream of freedom and nice travels. I left as quickly as I may.”
That occurred after he grew to become a scholar — and a scholar activist — at Escola Tècnica Superior d’Arquitectura de Barcelona. Throughout an anti-Franco demonstration in 1958, he was arrested and expelled from faculty.
He moved to Geneva to proceed his architectural schooling. Whereas there, he advised Mr. Belogolovsky: “My actual ardour ignited after I found the work of Frank Lloyd Wright and Alvar Aalto. I associated to natural structure, buildings that built-in with nature.”
In 1960, he designed a summer season home for a relative on the island of Ibiza, a modest stucco constructing that did appear near nature.
5 years earlier he had proposed a housing challenge for Madrid referred to as the Metropolis within the House, an endlessly expandable construction with turrets and crenelations and, in some renderings, a loopy quilt of colourful patterns.
In keeping with Pablo Bofill, the challenge led the mayor of Madrid, a Franco ally, to inform Mr. Bofill that he would by no means construct in Spain once more. Mr. Bofill determined to begin a brand new life in Paris, the place he gained the fee to switch the markets referred to as Les Halles. His scheme was already beneath building when that metropolis’s mayor, Jacques Chirac, fired him from the challenge.
Nonetheless, by 1985 his modern public housing had made Mr. Bofill a star of the French architectural scene. However through the years the initiatives outdoors Paris grew to become symbols of violence and squalor, and there was a motion to demolish Les Espaces d’Abraxas. Residents held off the wrecking ball, nevertheless.
In a 2014 interview with Le Monde, Mr. Bofill stated, “My expertise in France is partly profitable and partly unsuccessful.” He succeeded, he stated, by introducing new kinds and new building strategies. However, he added, he “failed as a result of if you’re younger, you’re very utopian, you suppose you’re going to vary town, and in the long run nothing occurred.”
Apart from his son Pablo and one other son, Ricardo Emilio, who collectively run the Bofill studio, survivors embrace 4 grandchildren and Mr. Bofill’s longtime accomplice, the economic designer Marta de Vilallonga. Mr. Bofill by no means married, however he had three earlier long-term companions, Pablo Bofill stated.
Mr. Bofill accomplished three buildings in the US: the colonnaded Shepard College of Music at Rice College in Houston and two workplace towers in Chicago. His agency’s work additionally included workplaces for Shiseido in Tokyo, educational buildings for the Mohammed VI Polytechnic College in Morocco and a W Resort in Barcelona.
In an surprising twist, Mr. Bofill’s older buildings discovered new followers within the twenty first century. “Westworld,” the HBO sci-fi sequence, was shot partially at La Fábrica, and” “Squid Sport,” the Korean TV juggernaut, featured units that carefully resembled La Muralla Roja.
These Bofill buildings and others grew to become acquainted Instagram backdrops — or within the phrases of Manuel Clavel Rojo, a Spanish architect and educator, “His buildings grew to become pop icons on the very finish of his profession.”